COVID-2019 Alert

The latest information about the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, including vaccine clinics for children ages 5 years old and older.

La información más reciente sobre el nuevo Coronavirus de 2019, incluidas las clínicas de vacunación para niños de 5 años en adelante.


Anoop Rao, MD

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Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine

Work and Education

Professional Education

Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, Mangalore, India, 06/01/2000


Albert Einstein Medical Center Pediatric Residency, Philadelphia, PA, 6/30/2013

NY Presbyterian Hospital Columbia Pediatric Residency, New York, NY, 6/30/2015


Stanford University Neonatology Fellowship, Palo Alto, CA, 06/30/2018

Board Certifications

Clinical Informatics, American Board of Preventive Medicine

Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics

Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics



All Publications

Advances in Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Quan, X., Liu, J., Roxlo, T., Siddharth, S., Leong, W., Muir, A., Cheong, S., Rao, A. 2021; 21 (13)


This paper reviews recent advances in non-invasive blood pressure monitoring and highlights the added value of a novel algorithm-based blood pressure sensor which uses machine-learning techniques to extract blood pressure values from the shape of the pulse waveform. We report results from preliminary studies on a range of patient populations and discuss the accuracy and limitations of this capacitive-based technology and its potential application in hospitals and communities.

View details for DOI 10.3390/s21134273

View details for PubMedID 34206457

Textile Based Sensing Blanket for ECG Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference Davis, C. L., Kao, T., Obi, A., Rao, A. V., Stoffel, N. 2020; 2020: 455154


Multiple designs of textile-based sensors were developed and integrated into blankets for the measurement of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Once the patient makes direct skin contact with the electrodes, the ECG signals are acquired and transmitted wirelessly by a wireless data acquisition unit to an associated computer for analysis, assessment and storage. A variety of designs and manufacturing methods were tested. An adult human subjects' study was conducted to test the feasibility of these measurements as well as to test the different design types and manufacturing methods. The heart rate and Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) are comparable to the gold standard adhesive lead measurements.

View details for DOI 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9176071

View details for PubMedID 33019006

Influence of enteral feeding and anemia on tissue oxygen extraction after red blood cell transfusion in preterm infants. Transfusion Goldstein, G. P., Rao, A. n., Ling, A. Y., Ding, V. Y., Chang, I. J., Chock, V. Y. 2020


Understanding factors that impact tissue oxygen extraction may guide red blood cell (RBC) transfusion decision making in preterm infants. Our objective was to assess the influence of enteral feeding and anemia on cerebral and mesenteric oxygen saturation (Csat and Msat) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE and mFTOE) over the entire time course of RBC transfusion.Preterm, very low-birth-weight infants receiving RBC transfusions at a single center were enrolled. Near-infrared spectroscopy sensors measured Csat and Msat levels from an hour before transfusion to 24hours after. During this period, changes in Csat, Msat, cFTOE, and mFTOE were described, and their association with enteral feeding status and pretransfusion degree of anemia were assessed using generalized estimating equations.RBC transfusion data from 31 preterm infants were included. Infants receiving enteral feeds exhibited lower pretransfusion Msat. Infants with pretransfusion hematocrit greater than 30% exhibited higher pretransfusion Csat and lower pretransfusion cFTOE. Such differences in baseline measurements persisted through 24hours after transfusion. However, no statistically significant differences in oxygenation measures over time by enteral feeding or anemia status were identified.Compared to NPO, enteral feeding was associated with lower Msat; anemia (hematocrit 30%) was associated with lower Csat and higher cFTOE. Over the time course of RBC transfusion, trajectories of Csat, Msat, cFTOE and mFTOE did not differ by enteral feeding or anemia status.

View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.15680

View details for PubMedID 31984520

Textile Based Sensing Blanket for ECG Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit Davis, C. L., Kao, T., Obi, A., Rao, A. V., Stoffel, N., IEEE IEEE. 2020: 455154
Liver Failure and Rash in a 6-week-old Girl PEDIATRICS IN REVIEW Mediratta, R., Schwenk, H., Rao, A., Chitkara, R. 2018; 39 (6): 315U22

View details for PubMedID 29858298

Comparing two anesthesia information management system user interfaces: a usability evaluation CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE Wanderer, J. P., Rao, A. V., Rothwell, S. H., Ehrenfeld, J. M. 2012; 59 (11): 1023-1031


Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) have been developed by multiple vendors and are deployed in thousands of operating rooms around the world, yet not much is known about measuring and improving AIMS usability. We developed a methodology for evaluating AIMS usability in a low-fidelity simulated clinical environment and used it to compare an existing user interface with a revised version. We hypothesized that the revised user interface would be more useable.In a low-fidelity simulated clinical environment, twenty anesthesia providers documented essential anesthetic information for the start of the case using both an existing and a revised user interface. Participants had not used the revised user interface previously and completed a brief training exercise prior to the study task. All participants completed a workload assessment and a satisfaction survey. All sessions were recorded. Multiple usability metrics were measured. The primary outcome was documentation accuracy. Secondary outcomes were perceived workload, number of documentation steps, number of user interactions, and documentation time. The interfaces were compared and design problems were identified by analyzing recorded sessions and survey results.Use of the revised user interface was shown to improve documentation accuracy from 85.1% to 92.4%, a difference of 7.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference 1.8 to 12.7). The revised user interface decreased the number of user interactions by 6.5 for intravenous documentation (95% CI 2.9 to 10.1) and by 16.1 for airway documentation (95% CI 11.1 to 21.1). The revised user interface required 3.8 fewer documentation steps (95% CI 2.3 to 5.4). Airway documentation time was reduced by 30.5 seconds with the revised workflow (95% CI 8.5 to 52.4). There were no significant time differences noted in intravenous documentation or in total task time. No difference in perceived workload was found between the user interfaces. Two user interface design problems were identified in the revised user interface.The usability of anesthesia information management systems can be evaluated using a low-fidelity simulated clinical environment. User testing of the revised user interface showed improvement in some usability metrics and highlighted areas for further revision. Vendors of AIMS and those who use them should consider adopting methods to evaluate and improve AIMS usability.

View details for DOI 10.1007/s12630-012-9771-z

View details for Web of Science ID 000310340200003

View details for PubMedID 23055030

Evolution of data management tools for managing self-monitoring of blood glucose results: a survey of iPhone applications. Journal of diabetes science and technology Rao, A., Hou, P., Golnik, T., Flaherty, J., Vu, S. 2010; 4 (4): 949-957


Studies have indicated that sharing of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data and subsequent feedback from the health care provider (HCP) can help achieve glycemic goals such as a reduction in glycated hemoglobin. Electronic SMBG data management and sharing tools for the PC and smartphones may help in reducing the effort to manage SMBG data.We reviewed software and top-ranking applications (Apps) for the iPhone platform to document the variety of useful features. Additionally, in an attempt to assess metrics such as task analysis and user friendliness of diabetes Apps, we observed and surveyed patients with diabetes as they recorded and relayed sample SMBG results to their hypothetical HCP using three Apps.Observation and survey demonstrated that the WaveSense Diabetes Manager allowed the participants to complete preselected SMBG data entry and relay tasks faster than other Apps. The survey revealed patient behavior patterns that would be useful in future App development.Being able to record, analyze, seamlessly share, and obtain feedback on the SMBG data using an iPhone/iTouch App might potentially benefit patients. Trends in SMBG data management and the possibility of having interoperability of blood glucose monitors and smartphones may open up new avenues of diabetes management for the technologically savvy patient.

View details for PubMedID 20663461

Individuals achieve more accurate results with meters that are codeless and employ dynamic electrochemistry. Journal of diabetes science and technology Rao, A., Wiley, M., Iyengar, S., Nadeau, D., Carnevale, J. 2010; 4 (1): 145-150


Studies have shown that controlling blood glucose can reduce the onset and progression of the long-term microvascular and neuropathic complications associated with the chronic course of diabetes mellitus. Improved glycemic control can be achieved by frequent testing combined with changes in medication, exercise, and diet. Technological advancements have enabled improvements in analytical accuracy of meters, and this paper explores two such parameters to which that accuracy can be attributed.Four blood glucose monitoring systems (with or without dynamic electrochemistry algorithms, codeless or requiring coding prior to testing) were evaluated and compared with respect to their accuracy.Altogether, 108 blood glucose values were obtained for each system from 54 study participants and compared with the reference values. The analysis depicted in the International Organization for Standardization table format indicates that the devices with dynamic electrochemistry and the codeless feature had the highest proportion of acceptable results overall (System A, 101/103). Results were significant when compared at the 10% bias level with meters that were codeless and utilized static electrochemistry (p = .017) or systems that had static electrochemistry but needed coding (p = .008).Analytical performance of these blood glucose meters differed significantly depending on their technologic features. Meters that utilized dynamic electrochemistry and did not require coding were more accurate than meters that used static electrochemistry or required coding.

View details for PubMedID 20167178

A simple approach for the computation of multiple periodicities in biological time series BIOLOGICAL RHYTHM RESEARCH Rao, A. V., Sharma, V. K. 2002; 33 (5): 487-502